Friday, February 7, 2020
GOALS - Essay Example My academic pursuits were put on hold when I enlisted in the U.S. Army. My years in active service in Germany proved to be a turning point in my life. Not only did it inculcate in me a new-found self-respect, discipline and spirit of altruism, army life also heightened my awareness of the myriad individual differences in man and, above all, the basic goodness inherent in all humanity. I saw men battle not only their adversaries, but also their own fatigue, fears and attitudes, to rise to the occasion and triumph against all odds. I was now resolved to make a career choice devoted to working closely with people on a personal level. I believe that my past experiences, including my B.S. in Family Studies in Gerontology, have equipped me to contribute in my own way to the field of Counseling Psychology. I have seen, at first hand, the power of positive thinking which can make a man reach unthought-of levels of endurance and achievement. My interpersonal skills are particularly suited to the role of a psychological counselor. My career in the Army and the Postal Service has exposed me to a vast number of people of varying ethnic, economic and social backgrounds and heightened my powers of observation and communication. I consider the primary role of a psychological counselor to be that of a facilitator in the therapeutic process. In dealing with everyday stresses and the problems pertaining to careers, academics, marriage and family, the counselor can be the sounding board for the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and emotions, guiding him to a coherent understanding of his emotions and problems. My conception of an effective counselor is one who helps the client to help himself. In this context, I am confident that my interpersonal skills, powers of observation and my trait of being a good listener are resources I can draw upon in developing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment plan. I believe that communication is the basic
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Midnight rider. Environmental Science Technology Essay The Midnight Rider Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This documentary series explores the life of Paul Revere who was an American patriot. He was born in Boston, Mass, and he was a superb silversmith and also an ardent patriot however he was a mediocre military leader. As a member of sons of liberty, Revere became the main express rider for Boston committee of safety (Peltier, 2005). His role was to carry information such as letters, news, copies of proposed resolutions and dispatches to the patriots who were dispersed all over New England and also as far as Philadelphia and New York (Pelley, 2009). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã RevereÃ¢â¬â¢s famous ride in 1775 to Lexington was only the most popular of the numerous courier services that he carried out. Later Revere was court-martialed and given an acquittal for his leadership for the period of failed 1779 Penebscot Bay expedition (Dorsey, 2007). Although was released his was not grated a similar treatment and therefore he was forced to walk on foot to Lexington and at Lexington Green he witnessed the late phases of the battle. Subsequent to the American Revolution, Revere carried on with great success his trade in silversmith (Sullivan, 2012). Revere supplied materials for constitution of U.S.S and also worked together with Robert Fulton during developing copper boilers for the steamboats (Keene, 2013). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Americans in the 21st century have a lot in common with their patriotic forefathers even though they are separated from the midnight ride of Paul revere by 238 years (Countryman Foner, 1985). They are ready to fight for their sacred rights whenever they feel that they are being denied their rights. They are inspired by the Paul RevereÃ¢â¬â¢s ride since when they remember the reason for this ride they get inspired and are ready to face their own fight against the forces of tyranny (Dorsey, 2007). References Countryman, E., Foner, E. (1985). The American Revolution. New York: Hill and Wang. Dorsey, A. (2007). Black History Is American History: Teaching African American History in the Twenty-first Century. Journal of American History, 93(4), 1171-1177. Jensen, M. (1970). The American People and the American Revolution. The Journal of American History, 57(1), 5. Keene, C. (2013). Mystery of the midnight rider. New York: Aladdin. Peltier, M. J. (Director). (2005). Paul Revere, the midnight rider [Documentary]. united states: A E Home Video :. Pelley, J. (2009). Midnight rider. Environmental Science Technology, 43(6), 1661-1662. Rachum, I. (1993). From Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAmerican IndependenceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã To The Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAmerican RevolutionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . Journal of American Studies, 27(01), 73. Revere, P., Forbes, E. (1963). Paul Reveres ride; a deposition.. Worcester, Mass.: A.J. St. Onge. Ruepp, K., Heyne, U., James, J. A. (1995). Midnight rider. New York: North-South Books. Sullivan, R. (2012). My American Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Thelen, D. (1994). The Practice of American History. The Journal of American History, 81(3), 933. Source document
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Whether or not Americans ever agree on what variety of pizza crust is best, thick or thin, round or square, hand-thrown or rolled, one thing is sure: AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term love affair with pizza remains as saucy as ever with no breakup in sight. In fact, the National Restaurant Association estimates a whopping 3 billion pizzas are sold in the U.S. each year representing $32+ billion annually in revenue. Now thatsa-lotta-pizza! Determining what ignited AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s love affair with pizza is not an exact science, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely the love affair commenced much like any love affair Ã¢â¬â with the courtship. Beginning in the 1940s, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s taste for pizza was ushered in as World War II servicemen stationed in Italy were returning home with cravings for pizza (a tasty replacement for their overseas rations). Upon return of American servicemen to the United States, pizza take-out was available through neighborhood Italian bakeries. Savvy pizza makers wooed American families to their shops with pleasing and aromatic scents of herbs, garlic, and fresh-baked breads. The tantalizing, wholesome aromas permeated neighborhood streets and lured Americans to pizzerias by way of their senses. Once enticed to visit the shop, Americans were further romanced by handsome shopkeepers stationed strategically behind plate glass windows through which they entertained Americans by touting their impressive pizza-tossing skills. Families congregated outside to watch in amazement as elastic, saucer-shaped dough was hurled high into the air, turbulently spinning, landing atop the artisanÃ¢â¬â¢s fist, still spinning wildly, and tossed again until perfectly stretched dough was formed, topped with tangy sauce, spices, and cheese and shuttled by paddle into the ... ... affair with pizza. New dessert varieties are made with cookie crusts topped with smooth, creamy chocolate sauces and sprinkled with candy-coated chocolate pieces, nuts, and coconut. For the fruit-loving pizza-lovers, there are pizza varieties based with cookie crusts and topped with cream cheese, peaches, strawberries, blueberries, and fruit syrups. Today, as reported by the National Restaurant Association, more than 61,000 pizza parlors across the United States are fanning the fires to keep the flame alive that was kindled in American hearts over 6 decades ago. Pizzerias reaffirm their commitment to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s love affair with pizza as they renew not only their vows but their pizza offerings in order to continually satisfy ravenous Americans who consume 350 slices of pizza each second (statistics reported by Homemade-Pizza-Made-Easy.com). Now, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s amore!
Monday, January 13, 2020
Communication is not just what you say. It is the tone of voice that you are using and the way you portray how you are feeling, for instance the way that you are standing will indicate how you are feeling towards whoever was with you if you were relaxed and open you would be standing with your head up and arms relaxed. If you were upset or didn't want to talk then you'd be stood there with your head down and arms folded across your chest. Eye contact is important and in the UK the majority of people look at each other for 70% of the conversation whereas in Japan they only look at one another for 50% of the time. Your confidence is shown in your eye contact if you are walking down a street with your head held high and briefly meet others eyes it shows that you are confident in yourself and what you are doing. Only a small part of communication is what you are actually saying this can make it complicated when you are communicating with others as what you are saying will mean perfect sense to you but it may be interpreted to mean something completely different. In most cases the tone of your voice is either taken for granted or perceived unconsciously. The tone of how you say something is 38% of the way that you communicate. 55% is non verbal communication and what you say is only 7%. This shows that awareness of the appropriate tone and good voice control this is important for all care workers. Communication skills are a vital and necessary to have in any care setting. If you have good communication skills you can make sure that you get every thing done as efficiently and effetely as possible. Also when you are dealing with people in a social care environment you will need to make sure that they understand what you are saying or meaning, you have to build a trusting relationship with your clients and make sure that they are at ease, this is because you might be dealing with vulnerable people, the elderly or people with learning difficulties.Sentence and Verbal Communication To meet you client's needs you would help with housing, washing, shopping or with anything else that the individual may need. Some of the elderly clients may be suffering with dementia. This may result in them acting in an unpredictable way. The medical side is different although communication is just as fundamental, as you may have to find something important out quickly to prevent further distress to the patient. When you go and visit you doctor you only have a 10 minute time slot and in them 10 minutes your GP has to find out what is wrong explain and give you treatment. This would not happen if you and your doctor could not communicate properly. Your patients will be aware of your body language so you need to show them that you are comfortable and that you want to hear what they have to say; also you need to show them that what they are saying is important. So eye contact and openness is vital. You don't want to be sat typing away at your computer when your patient arrives as that automatically says you have something more important to do other then greeting them. Also when people are in pain or ill they tend to become emotional and anxious. Then as the health professional it is your job to make sure that you have the situation under control. A GP or any other health professional needs to make sure that they use the correct type of tone this is make sure that the patient feels comfortable a nd valued also by using the appropriate tone you can make yourself sound interested, caring and encouraging. Effective communication is central to a good working practice of all early years' professionals and relationships with children and their families/carers may be impaired without it. Communication involves a successful exchange of information from one person to another. When working with the early years you have to take in to account of their age and their understanding level. You can not expect a child of 3 to understand eye contact or subtle body language. You need to make sure that you are communicating to them on their understanding level not yours. You will also have to compromise for their lack of speech and their unpredictability when they cant communicate with you. So for communication to be successful it needs to meat the needs of both speakers and any breakdown will result in a lack of communication taking place ADD COMMUNICATION CYCLE? Ask Teresa Oral communication would be one of the most important ways of communicating in the social, medical and early years setting, as within these settings you have to build up a trusting professional relationship. That advantage to oral communication is that you can exchange information quickly. The service provider can explain situations and answer any questions that may arise. When speaking with someone you can make sure that whoever you are communicating with understand what you are saying. Also if necessary and appropriate you can comfort if what you are saying is distressing. In a social setting oral communication is vital for a nurse as she not only has to be able to communicate efficiently and for the best of her clients she has to be able to hand over their information correctly to the next shift of nurses if she was to get this wrong it may jeopardise the patient. Also with oral communication you can nominally tell how your clients are feeling if they have a quite tone then it may be that they are depressed, feeling sad or passiveness. If they had a loud or excited tone this could mean that they were fearful, feeling angry or aggressive. Skilled care workers can pick this up and act appropriately. It is an important role of a care worker to be able to understand, relay and gather information not just with the patients but also with her work team. On a typical day a nurse would have to record what medication was given, the amount and the time it was administered she would do this so she could pass it on to other nurses so they are aware of the medication that, the patient has had. Communication can fail if there is a lack of knowledge this could leave the people involved feeling inadequate. Communicating orally in an early year's environment can be demanding and frustrating. You not only have to build up trusting relationship and understanding with the children you also need to do this with their parents/carers and the rest of your team. When communicating with young children they may not always understand what you are saying to them but the can hear your tone of voice and the tone of voice used conveys a message to the child which at times be the wrong message. For example. To ask a child Ã¢â¬Å"what are you doingÃ¢â¬ may be interpreted by a child as a negative question if the tone of voice is wrong. When you are talking to young children and are asking questions or giving guidance you need to do so in a clear voice and in bite size pieces. Like Ã¢â¬Å"go and get your shoesÃ¢â¬ not Ã¢â¬Å"go out the hall into the shoe area find your shoes and put them on. Then come back to meÃ¢â¬ this is because their understanding level is lower then yours and the short term memory only last for 30 seconds and by the time they have left the room they would have forgotten. When talking to parent/carer you need to establish whether they would prefer you to communicate with them in an informal or formal way. This is the register of language. Some parents and most certainly the children will prefer you to great them in an informal way as this may put them at ease. Within a medical setting you need to remember to use the correct type of language (register of language) formal language would be better unless requested from the patient. If a medical receptionist was informal then the patient may think that are being disrespected. As a GP you will communicate aurally most of the time to you patients this mean that the GP has the advantage that the tone of voice can betray how the patient is feeling emotionally and if relevant the GP may be able to help or refer them to another source. This is the GP taking care of his patient's emotional and physical wellbeing. As a GP you will have to work and communicate with people that have different styles of speaking such as ethic groups and people that come from different work and culture settings. Verbal communication for a nurse at A+E is about buliding a relationship quickly with all types of people from all walks of life they have to be calm so she needs to have gained their trust. Also they have to exchange information to one another. Nurses and paramedics use a pain scale asking how bad the pain is from 1 to 10 this is especially good for children as they cant always describe what pain they are in. Written communication in any organised setting is one of the most important factors. This is because of keeping records. Getting the right support for your clients. Without written communication you would not be able to do this. In social care setting it may not be the choice of some of your clients. If you have clients that are profoundly deaf or very hard of hearing it would be more appropriate and polite to send them a letter rather then ringing them. There would be little point of finding out effective way to communicate with a client and then not making an accurate record so that other people can also communicate with that person. The type of things that you would record as a care worker would be what problems your clients have how it affects them both emotionally and physically. What action should be taken by yourself and others. Always add the date and whether you administered medication, and any other day to day things that you do. Most of the written communication will be between you and your colleges on a professional basis. You will mainly communicate with your clients in a more informal way When working in an early year's environment it is important to keep parents well informed. You need to pass information through ways that parents can access. The easiest way to do this is by written communication. This can be in many ways such as news letters once a month with general information in them, home and setting books so that you can keep in contact with the parents that way this is a good way for people that have child care so they know what is going on a daily basis, notice boards so that you can display reminders and notices and displays of the children's work throughout the setting so that the parents can see for them selves that their child is doing constructive things while at the setting When working with early years children it is easier sometimes to use visual pictures as aids so that a child can associate a picture with a meaning or a word. For example you may put their picture on their coat per and a picture of a coat above them. Children respond and understand picture writing rather then just the written word. Staff in the early years setting will also do reports on the children's development and what aspects they need to improve on. This is to accommodate their social, physical, emotional and intellectual wellbeing and prepare them for school. The types of medical written information that you would get would be letters and reminders about appointments whether at your GP's clinic, medical centre or local hospitals. You may get test results or letters about your tests and the results. You may also get formal letters indicating a change of location. Every doctor has his patient's notes and information this is to see what illness and treatments that you have had in the past and whether you are allergic to anything. He keeps them as records nowadays stored on a computer so no matter where you are they can locate your files. As a patient you may get extra correspondence from your GP regarding any medical check ups that you need GP's and other health professionals use written communication to refer patients to one other service providers. Being an employee in any care setting you will come across people with hearing and visual impairments there are a number of ways to carry on or start communicating with your clients. Communication between hearing and deaf people is not always straight forward. Quite often the response of a hearing person is to either talk more loudly or over emphasise lip patterns, this will actually cause more difficulty. However the ability and awareness of how to communicate clearly can solve many day to day issues. Makaton is a type of system that uses speech, signs and symbols to help people with learning difficulties to communicate, and to develop their language skills. People that speak Makaton will use speech as well as body language they don't just silent sign. Makaton is a form of augmentative and alterative communication (AAC). Makaton is used with both children and adults who are unable to speak or whose speech is difficult to understand. Makaton is a key word signing system that aims to provide a basic means of communication and encourage language development. When using Makaton the key words will still be spoken as well as signed. If you have a client in your care it is bested advised to try and learn some of their preferred way of communication, although you will pick up some meanings. Braille is a type of communication that instead or words are raised marks that can be felt wit the fingers. This provides a type of written communication that can be used by people with limited or no sight. Braille is usually taught to those who are totally blind from youth. Moon is usually taught to people who loose their sight in later life. Both moon and Braille are raised symbols that correspond to the alphabet. British sign language is a visual/spatial language which is governed by its own grammatical rules using shapes, hand movements and facial expressions to convey meaning leading to successful communication. There are 9,000,000 deaf or hard of hearing people in the UK, with distinct differences in the way that they wish to communicate. Approximately 80,000 people sign language as their first language. Electrical aids have made communication much easier. Information displays on computer screens such as information kiosks ands bulletin boards are increasingly being used for public communication. Other then e-mails and telephone and the internet there are loads of other ways to communicate using modern technology. Technology can be made friendly and accessible to people that are blind or have low vision for example:- you have voice synthesisers can be installed to read out loud the text on the screen. There is also Braille and other tactile symbols can be embossed on the buttons used on the display. You can also get special scanners to convert text into a read out which is relayed to the user by voice synthesisers or convert the words on a printed page into very large sized text on the computer screen. Communication via computers has enabled society to be able to communicate efficiently, accurately and quickly. Within a hospital and emergency environment to communicate the correct information and quickly you need computerised communication. For example somebody comes into A+E with a suspected broken arm they get sent to the Department to have an x-ray. After taking the photos they send them back to A+E. this saves time and money. It is efficient and it is to the best of the patients as treatment can be administered more quickly. In effect it's taking care of their physical and emotional wellbeing. This is not the only benefit that computerised communication has, at the scene of an accident the paramedics will contact the hospital to let them know who is coming in and why their age and any other infomation that they have on them. This is to ensure that upon their arrival the correct treatment can be administered, Especially if it is a life threatening situation. Even though the need of speed may be vital they also have to be accurate, clear and understandable as its about somebodys care.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
From the recent massacres happening in Iraq and Syria, we can gather that Washington has trampled on a path which has been seen as a way to redefine the war in Iraq, an effective scheme to bring the command of Assad to its crumbling demises and to recalibrate an inclusive plan to collapse the Islamic Government of Iran. Immediately coinciding with the withdrawal of US forces from Iraq, an organized string of deadly explosions gripped Iraq, leading to the massacre of dozens of civilians. Multiple bomb explosions happening simultaneously in Baghdad, claiming the lives of countless innocent civilians. Another series of explosions targeted Shia Muslims killing at least 71 people. Most of the explosions which targeted the Shia Muslims are maliciously meant to inspire the feeling and doubt that it is a matter of sectarian violence, a plot devised by the US and its allies to justify that the Iraqi politicians are intent to provoke a communal bloodletting which is gradually tearing the cou ntry apart. Washington began to capitalize on tension in the country and playing the religious card on one hand and sending a message that Iraq is not capable of maintaining security and stability in the country on the other. As the situation stands, Washington is redefining the war in Iraq by provoking chaos and commotion in the ravaged country with three apparent motivations.. One, to create the impression that the withdrawal of US troops was a mistake and that the country is diving intoShow MoreRelatedWar in Iraq Essay1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontinually sent troops overseas to the Middle East, but why? The government has said that it is to fight terrorism or to bring democracy to the Middle Eastern nations. There happens to be a barrier that stands in the way of both those goals and that would be Islamic Fundamentalism. Islamic Fundamentalism is the term used to describe the religious ideologies of advocating a return to the Ã¢â¬Å"fundamentalsÃ¢â¬ of Islam. Through this return to the Islamic fundamentals, the rights of women have been violated whileRead MoreThe, The Party For God Essay1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHezbollah To some Hezbollah, the Ã¢â¬Å"Party for GodÃ¢â¬ , is a political group fighting for nationalism and to others, particularly western cultures; Hezbollah is a very dangerous terrorist organization. Hezbollah is a Shiite Muslim group based in Iran and Southern Lebanon. They have an extensive network that crosses international borders and consists of everything from schools and hospitals to a television station. Hezbollah was formed following the 1979 Iranian Revolution. In the early Ã¢â¬Ë80s, there wereRead MoreStudy of Extreme Islamic Terrorist Groups1858 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStudy of Extreme Islamic Terrorist Groups Terrorist groups have been involved in political violence dating back to the Greek and Roman Empires. Terrorist Groups have used violence, and terror to seek political change. In the thirteen and fourteenth century, Italy was very volatile. The government went through many changes the use of violence and force was used to terrorize the opponents. In the Age of Revolutions, Muslims began practicing the form of the suicide attacker. The attacks occurred inRead MoreThe History of the Terrorist Group Hamas Essay1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfrom creating a Islamic state to continuing the armed struggle against Israeli occupation of Palestine territories. Their acts of terrorism to date have included suicide bomb attacks against Israeli civilians to attacks on suspected Palestinian collaborators. The Palestinians turned to terrorism because of the volatile surroundings palestine after first Intifada and because of how other governments had failed. Terrorism is so successful because people have the threat of bombings and attacks ifRead MoreAnti Missile Anti American Rhetoric934 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMinister Netanyahu has openly threatened to conduct airstrikes against Iran if an agreement was reached. These threats by Israel against Iran would in-fact give them plausible reasoning to seek anti-missile technology in the case that they were attacked by Israel. Similarly, the rhetoric as argued by Middle East hmm bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbeye journalist and Director of Communications for the American Iranian Council argues, Ã¢â¬Å"Islamic RepublicÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders must reconcile their revolutionary anti-AmericanismRead MoreThe Release Of Frozen Assets1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrozen Assets One of the key elements of the Iran Nuclear Deal is the lifting of sanctions against Iran by America and the European Union. These sanctions have been imposed over the years following the Iranian Revolution and Iran s pursuit of nuclear weapons. The amount of assets frozen in foreign banks is approximately $150 billion - a large number will go to preexisting debt. According to Kertscher, 2016, Ã¢â¬Å"Kerry had told CNBC s Ã¢â¬Å"Squawk BoxÃ¢â¬ that Iran would get only $55 billion of the $150 billionRead MoreMiddle Eastern And African Terrorist Movements1414 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesalienation, providing recruits to the cause of terrorist groups. Boko Haram and group s leader is Abubakar Shekau have long been thought to have alleged links to al-Qaeda, but in March 2015, it announced its allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) also known as Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (isis) and its leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi. In the local Hausa dialect, Boko Haram means Western education is forbidden(CNN). The group also refers to itself as Jama atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda awatiRead MoreThe United States And The Iranian Revolution1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHowever, this was changed by the knowledge that one of the 9/11 attackers had overstayed in the U.S. on a student visa (Mittelstadt, Speaker, Meissner, Christi, 2011). A process was already in the pipeline: started after the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993, where one of the bombers was also found to be in the U.S on an expired studentÃ¢â¬â¢s visa; however, the process sped up after 9/11. In seeking a method to prevent the reoccurrence of international studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement in any such future actsRead MoreIranian Revolution and Comic Book Persepolis1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe memoir of Marjane Satrapi growing up in Iran is written as a very personal account in the comic book Persepolis. This is a story that describes her life during the Islamic Revolution which includes her moral, physical, religious, and psychological struggles she endured. Being the setting of a bloody war with Iraq, Iran was not the ideal environment MarjaneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents wanted her to grow up in. Persepolis represents a unique life of a child in Tehran, Iran and the actions she took in order to surviveRead MoreThe Challenges Of The Kuwait Diplomacy1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeen a struggle of power within the middle east, and particularly between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Amongst the nations in the Arabian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has always been at the most power and influential country. Saudi Arabia and Iran were always polar opposites of each other. When Saudi Arabia first produced its oil, it saw its economy benefit and heighten much more than Iran could do with its oil reserves. Oil was one of the major element with Saudi Arabia and its neighboring
Friday, December 27, 2019
Inbreeding is the process of mating genetically similar organisms. In humans, its associated with consanguinity and incest, in which close relatives have sexual relationships and children. Inbreeding violates modern social norms, but is fairly common in animals and plants. While inbreeding generally is considered negative, it also offers some positive effects. Key Takeaways Inbreeding occurs when two closely related organisms mate with each other and produce offspring.The two main negative consequences of inbreeding are an increased risk of undesirable genes and a reduction in genetic diversity.The House of Habsburg may be the best example of the effects of inbreeding in humans. Genetic Effects of Inbreeding When two closely related organismsÃ mate, their offspring have a higher level of homozygosity: in other words, an increased chance that the offspring will receive identical allelesÃ from their mother and father. In contrast, heterozygosity occurs when the offspring receives different alleles.Ã Dominant traits are expressed when only one copy of an allele is present, while recessive traits require two copies of an allele to be expressed. Homozygosity increases with subsequent generations, so recessive traits that might otherwise be masked may start appearing as a result of repeated inbreeding. One negative consequence of inbreeding is that it makes the expression of undesired recessive traits more likely. However, the risk of manifesting a genetic disease, for example, isnt very high unless inbreeding continues for multiple generations. The other negative effect of inbreeding is reduction genetic diversity. Diversity helps organisms survive changes in the environment and adapt over time. Inbred organisms may suffer from what is called reduced biological fitness. Scientists have also identified potential positive consequences of inbreeding. Selective breeding of animals has led to new breeds of domestic animals, genetically suited to specific tasks. It can be used to preserve certain traits which might be lost from out-crossing. The positive consequences of inbreeding are less well studied in humans, but inÃ a study of Icelandic couples, scientists found that marriages between third cousins resulted in a greater number of children, on average, than those between completely unrelated couples. Disorders From Inbreeding The risk of a child developing an autosomal recessive disorder increases with inbreeding. Carriers of a recessive disorder may be unaware they possess a mutated gene because two copies of a recessive allele are needed for gene expression. On the other hand, autosomal dominant disorders are seen in the parents, but might be eliminated through inbreeding if the parents carry the normal gene. Examples of defects seen with inbreeding include: Reduced fertilityReduced birth rateHigher infant and child mortalitySmaller adult sizeReduced immune functionIncreased risk of cardiovascular diseaseIncreased facial asymmetryIncreased risk of genetic disorders Examples of specific genetic disorders associated with inbreeding include schizophrenia, limb malformation, blindness, congenital heart disease, and neonatal diabetes. The House of Habsburg may be the best example of the effects of inbreeding in humans. The Spanish Habsburg dynasty endured for six centuries, largely from consanguinous marriages. The last ruler of the line, Charles II of Spain, displayed a number of physical problems and was unable to produce an heir. Experts believe inbreeding lead to the extinction of the royal line. Animal Inbreeding Successive inbreeding of animals has been used to establish pure linesÃ for scientific research. Experiments conducted on these subjects are valuable because genetic variation cant skew the results. In domestic animals, inbreeding often results in a trade-off where a desirable trait is magnified at the expense of another. For example, inbreeding Holstein dairy cattle has ledÃ to increased milk production, but the cows are more difficult to breed. Many wild animals naturally avoid inbreeding, but there are exceptions. For example, banded mongoose females often mate with male siblings or their father. Female fruit flies prefer to mate with their brothers. The male Adactylidium mite always mates with its daughters. In some species, the advantages of inbreeding may outweigh the risks. Sources Griffiths AJ, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM (1999). An introduction to genetic analysis. New York: W. H. Freeman. pp. 726Ã¢â¬â727. ISBN 0-7167-3771-X.Lieberman D, Tooby J, Cosmides L (April 2003). Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest. Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 270 (1517): 819Ã¢â¬â26. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2290.Ã Thornhill NW (1993). The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-79854-2.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Organizational communication is the flow of messages within a network of interdependent relationships (Goldhaber, 1976). Terry, Drexler, and Faulkner wrote an article researching communication of family businesses. Research shows that there are fewer problems with family employee in comparison to non-family employees of the same firms (Terry, Drexler, Faulkner, 1997). Yet when there problems with a family member employee, it comes from mixing their roles work-related roles with family related roles and cannot separate their conflicts in professional and personal life (Terry, Drexler, Faulkner, 1997). Many of the characters are involved professionally in their careers. Organizational communication is heavily concentrated on people, their attitudes, feelings, relationships, and skills (Goldhaber, 1976). Modern Family shows that the present-day family is able to work together both professionally and personally without harming their relationships. Socialization Theory Socialization Theory explains that an organization is trying to influence the adaptation of individuals through formal and informal socialization processes. There are three main phases in this process; anticipatory socialization, encounter, metamorphosis. Organizations have role-related and organizational culture information that obtained through many information seeking tactics like observing, asking third parties, and testing limits (Miller, 2006). In the episode Ã¢â¬Å"First DaysÃ¢â¬ , Claire starts working atShow MoreRelatedCoordination Communication Within Health Care Organization3187 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesCoordination And Communication Within Health Care Organization Health Care Organization is unique and complex entity consisting of groups of specialized people with specific purpose in the set of rules, policies, procedures, relationships and culture. It is highly diverse organization consisting of people from different functionality, in management side includes human resources, finance and accounting, information systems, maintenance housekeeping; in clinical side includes physicians specializedRead MoreOnline Community Building: The Case of DC Urban Moms2398 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAudience research has often been associated with semiotics, cultural studies, audience reception studies and ethnography research. What it used to be taken as a one-way information flow process has recently been considered a transmission belt between the senders Ã¢â¬â as the starting point that forms our individual perceptions reflected in our actions, thoughts, and conversations Ã¢â¬â and the receivers. The emergence of blogs and social media platforms has enc ouraged scholars to ponder whether the ideaRead MoreSocio Technical System8507 Words Ã |Ã 35 Pagesintervention strategy for organizational development Steven H. 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Chester Barnard described an organisation as Ã¢â¬Ëa system of co-operative human activitiesÃ¢â¬â¢. Organisation are can be define as; Ã¢â¬ËA deliberately formed group of human being with known boundaries and common goalÃ¢â¬â¢. OrRead MoreMarketing Implementation8923 Words Ã |Ã 36 Pageseveryone s time assignments etc. Monitoring: using monitoring skills to reconstruct degraded corporate information and control systems. Organizing: Good implementers have an almost uncanny ability to create afresh an informal organization, or network, to match each problem with which they are confronted. Good practice in marketing Important characteristics that differentiate good marketing practice emerge: 1. a strong sense of identity and of direction in marketing policies exists. 2Read MoreTraveler Import Car, Incorporated Case Study7098 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesrecommendations to solve every analysed problem area. The report below identifies key areas such as leadership, motivation, conflict management, training development, organisational structure communication, which require to be looked into critically. In the first part, the report analyses the important problematic issues within these areas taking into account, policies procedures that are currently being followed in the company, the feelings of the employees towards their jobs work environment as well asRead MoreMarketing Communication Plan3894 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Project Outline 1: Situation Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦3 1.1: Marketing Communication Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦3 1.2: Role of Marketing CommunicationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.4 1.3: The communication Model Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.6 1.4: 4C Framework Model Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..8 2: Communication Plan Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..10 2.1: Target Market Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..10 2.2: Communication Objective Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦11 2.3. 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